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Women live longer than men in nearly all populations today.
We investigate the survival of both sexes in seven populations under extreme conditions from famines, epidemics, and slavery.
Women survived better than men: In all populations, they had lower mortality across almost all ages, and, with the exception of one slave population, they lived longer on average than men.
Some research focuses on the biological origins of the female advantage; other research stresses the significance of social factors.
We studied male–female survival differences in populations of slaves and populations exposed to severe famines and epidemics.
We find that even when mortality was very high, women lived longer on average than men.
Most of the female advantage was due to differences in mortality among infants: baby girls were able to survive harsh conditions better than baby boys.
A well-known story concerns the Donner Party, a group of settlers that lost twice as many men as women when stranded for 6 mo in the extreme winter in the Sierra Nevada mountains (13).
The hypothesis that the survival advantage of women has fundamental biological underpinnings is supported by the fact that under very harsh conditions females survive better than males even at infant ages when behavioral and social differences may be minimal or favor males.
Our findings also indicate that the female advantage differs across environments and is modulated by social factors.–3).
A finding that men and women have similar life expectancies under these conditions would challenge the notion that the survival advantage of women is fundamentally biologically determined in all environments.
Therefore, we study here the survival of both sexes in populations enduring mortality crises.