Validating composite controls
Modern autogyros typically follow one of two basic configurations.
The most common design is the pusher configuration, where the engine and propeller are located behind the pilot and rotor mast, such as in the Bensen "Gyrocopter".
The latter term was later adopted as a trademark by Bensen Aircraft.
The vertical (downward) component of the total aerodynamic reaction of the rotor gives lift for the vehicle, and sustains the autogyro in the air.
While similar to a helicopter rotor in appearance, the autogyro's rotor must have air flowing through the rotor disc to generate rotation.Three designs to affect the tilt of the rotor are a tilting hub (Cierva), swashplate (Air & Space 18A), or servo-flaps. On pusher configuration autogyros, the rudder is typically placed in the propeller slipstream to maximize yaw control at low airspeed (but not always, as seen in the Mc Culloch J-2, with twin rudders placed outboard of the propeller arc).There are three primary flight controls: control stick, rudder pedals, and throttle.Unlike a helicopter, autogyros without collective pitch or another jump start facility need a runway to take off; however, they are capable of landing with a very short or zero ground roll.Like helicopters, each autogyro has a specific height–velocity diagram for safest operation, although the dangerous area is usually smaller than for helicopters.A separate propeller provides forward thrust, and can be placed in a tractor configuration with the engine and propeller at the front of the fuselage (e.g., Cierva), or pusher configuration with the engine and propeller at the rear of the fuselage (e.g., Bensen).Whereas a helicopter works by forcing the rotor blades through the air, drawing air from above, the autogyro rotor blade generates lift in the same way as a glider's wing, Because the craft must be moving forward (with respect to the surrounding air) in order to force air through the overhead rotor, autogyros are generally not capable of vertical takeoff or landing (unless in a strong headwind). Pitch control is achieved by tilting the rotor fore and aft; roll control by tilting the rotor laterally (side to side).The Fairey Jet Gyrodyne and Fairey Rotodyne had true tipjets instead of the rockets.They were technically successful but were not mass-produced due to concerns about tipjet noise.The term Autogiro was a trademark of the Cierva Autogiro Company, and the term Gyrocopter was used by E.Burke Wilford who developed the Reiseler Kreiser feathering rotor equipped gyroplane in the first half of the twentieth century.